by Tas Walker A geologist works out the relative age of a rock by carefully studying where the rock is found in the field.The field relationships, as they are called, are of primary importance and all radiometric dates are evaluated against them.It is clear that the sedimentary rock was deposited and folded before the dyke was squeezed into place.By looking at other outcrops in the area, our geologist is able to draw a geological map which records how the rocks are related to each other in the field.1 - Department of Geosciences, 2 - Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA 3 - Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QJ, UK 4 - Institut für Mittelenergiephysik, ETH-Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland 5 - Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA 6 - Research Laboratory, British Museum, London WC1B 3DG, UK Very small samples from the Shroud of Turin have been dated by accelerator mass spectrometry in laboratories at Arizona, Oxford and Zurich.As Controls, three samples whose ages had been determined independently were also dated.Ice cores showed the age of a military plane buried in the artic as thousands of years old.
Subsequently the shroud was made available for scientific examination, first in 19 by a committee appointed by Cardinal Michele Pellegrino .
Ice core sampling normally uses the assumption that the ring bands observed represents years.
One known example where this assumption was used is very misleading.
Seriation uses the assumption that once a tool was developed, its use would become more widespread.
Stratigraphy uses the assumption that higher layers or strata were laid down after lower layers.